Assignment: Essential Leadership Activity

Assignment: Essential Leadership Activity
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Assignment: Essential Leadership Activity
Assignment: Essential Leadership Activity
Assignment: Essential Leadership Activity
While argumentation is an essential leadership activity, many of us view arguments with suspicion. Although you have probably had enjoyable argu- ments that stimulated your thinking, chances are you’ve also been in unpleas- ant arguments that resulted in hurt feelings and broken relationships. The key to understanding the mix of good and bad experiences we’ve had while argu- ing lies in distinguishing between argumentativeness and verbal aggression.30 Argumentativeness involves presenting and defending positions on issues. Verbal aggressiveness is hostile communication aimed at attacking the self- concepts of others instead of (or in addition to) their positions on the issues.
Aggressive tactics include: • Character attacks • Threats • Background attacks • Competence attacks • Insults • Physical appearance attacks • Teasing • Nonverbal indicators that express hostility • Ridicule (looks of disgust, clenched fists, rolling eyes,
• Profanity demeaning tone of voice)
If our arguments have been unpleasant, it is probably because one or both parties engaged in verbal aggression. Verbally aggressive communication is destructive. Such behavior has been linked to spousal abuse and family vio- lence, for example, and reduces student learning and instructor credibility. In contrast, argumentativeness produces a variety of positive outcomes. Organi- zational followers prefer to work for supervisors who are argumentative but not aggressive, and such leaders have higher salaries and career satisfaction. Organizational leaders favor followers who have similar traits, giving argu- mentative (but not aggressive) subordinates higher performance reviews.31
Recognizing the difference between argument and aggression is the first step to building our argumentative competence.32 We may need to jettison our negative images of the term argument and recognize its positive features. We must avoid the aggressive behaviors listed earlier and sharpen our argumenta- tion skills instead. Dominic Infante outlines five skills that, collectively, con- stitute argumentative competence: stating the controversy in propositional form; inventing arguments; presenting and defending your position; attacking other positions; and managing interpersonal relations.33
Stating the controversy in propositional form. Productive arguments begin with a clear understanding of the argumentative situation. Stating the problem in the form of a proposition or proposal is the best way to clarify what the con- flict is about. Propositions of fact deal with what happened in the past (“The college grew in the 1990s largely due to its president’s leadership.”), the pres- ent (“Enrollment is down due to higher tuition.”), or future (“Unless the col- lege cuts its rate of tuition increase, it will be in financial trouble within five years.”). Propositions of value deal with issues of right or wrong: “It’s unethi- cal to lay off employees when profits are rising”; “Everyone ought to do their part on the group project.” Propositions of policy are concerned with what course of action should be taken, such as how to reduce the number of home- less people in a city or how to market a new financial service. By framing an argument in the form of a proposal, we identify the sides that people are likely
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASSDiscussion Questions (DQ)
Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation
Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy
For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
Late Policy
The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me: Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.
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