Assignment:How To Make Decisions

Assignment:How To Make Decisions
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Assignment:How To Make Decisions
Assignment:How To Make Decisions
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. Decision-making is the process of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values, preferences and beliefs of the decision-maker. Every decision-making process produces a final choice, which may or may not prompt action.
Research about decision-making is also published under the label problem solving, in particular in European psychological research.[1]
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1. Individual decision making is a good approach when:
A. The leader has enough expertise to make a good decision.
B. The decision is complex with many possible solutions.
C. Commitment to the decision by other people is critical.
D. The decision will directly impact many agencies, individuals, or community members.
2. A poor decision with ethical implications can escalate an emergency into an unmanageable situation.
A. TRUE
B. FALSE
3. When applying the problem-solving model to ethical solutions, be sure to consider:
A. Stakeholder needs and values.
B. Private gain.
C. Evacuation priorities.
D. Individual compliance.
4. A common operating picture ____________ decision making in a crisis.
A. Follows
B. Destabilizes
C. Promotes
D. Impedes
5. Which of the following is an advantage of group decision making?
A. It tends to limit discussion of the problem.
B. It is more likely to be influenced by a vocal few.
C. It provides a broader perspective and taps a wider range of expertise.
D. It is successful when time is limited and leadership is absent.
6. Which of the following factors can impede decision making in an incident?
A. Clear values
B. Focus on the big picture
C. Validated information
D. Time pressure
7. When selecting group members for problem solving, it is more effective to include people who:
A. Have a stake in the outcome.
B. Are homogeneous in makeup.
C. Have limited decision-making authority.
D. Represent jurisdictions with no stake in the outcome.
8. The initial step of the five-step problem-solving model is to:
A. Identify the problem.
B. Clarify values.
C. Develop an approach.
D. Explore alternatives
9. Decision makers should determine who is affected by an emergency during this step of the problem-solving process.
A. Select an alternative.
B. Implement the soution.
C. Make a decision.
D. Identify the problem.
10. Failure to verify information can lead to:
A. Good decisions.
B. Poor decisions.
C. Group decisions.
D. Individual decisions.
11. During which step of the problem-solving model should you eliminate alteratives that appear unethical.
A. Identify the problem.
B. Implement the solution.
C. Select an alternative.
D. Make a decision.
12. When selecting a solution in an ethical situation, be sure to consider:
A. Personal compliance.
B. Your values and those of your organization.
C. The community’s taxholder base.
D. All possible solutions, regardless of how they appear ethically.
13. An effective decision maker should:
A. Make decisions based solely on financial and environmental factors.
B. Promote groupthink to evaluate potential solutions.
C. Have a clear view of values and keep them in mind at each step of the process.
D. Rely on primary sources of information and avoid secondary sources when making decisions.
14. Which of the following factors can impede decision making in an incident?
A. Fatigue and stress.
B. Common operating picture.
C. Forming smaller groups.
D. Common priorities.
15. The decision-making for emergencies process should begin:
A. After an emergency operations center has been established.
B. During the execution phase of the decision-making cycle.
C. Well before any emergency strikes.
D. Under emergency conditions.
16. Ethical dilemmas can complicate decisions where there is no legal precedent or established procedures.
A. TRUE
B. FALSE
17. Effective decision making in an emergency results in the following, EXCEPT FOR:
A. Quicker recovery time from the emergency event.
B. Better management of the incident.
C. Increased trust and support from the community.
D. Increased risk of injury to victims or responders.
18. The number and magnitude of decisions and problems that must be addressed during an emergency are a direct outgrowth of:
A. The steps of the problem-solving model.
B. Decisions that were or were not made during the planning process.
C. The size of the decision-making group.
D. The length of the execution phase of the decision-making cycle.
19. Under stress, decision makers are more likely to:
A. Exhibit poor judgment.
B. Focus on longer range alternatives.
C. Avoid conflict with other key players.
D. Engage with other key players for longer periods of time.
20. A key characteristic of effective problem-solving groups is their:
A. Large size.
B. Duplication of function.
C. Emphasis on unanimous agreement.
D. Diverse makeup.
21. Which of the following is a limitation of group decision making?
A. It requires adequate time and good leadership to be successful.
B. It unleashes the creative potential of team members in developing alternatives.
C. It reduces the use of discussion in order to lessen uncertainties.
D. It reduces ownership and buy-in.
22. An effective decision maker ensures quality information by:
A. Validating information to be true and accurate.
B. Defending baseline data from reports received from other sources.
C. Avoiding secondary sources of information.
D. Discounting conflicting opinions.
23. A problem-solving model helps to minimize impediments to decision making and the impact of stress.
A. TRUE
B. FALSE
24. The steps of the analytical problem-solving model include: identifying the problem, exploring alternatives, ___________, implementing a solution, and evaluating the situation.
A. Analyzing the situation.
B. Identifying the stakeholders.
C. Selecting alternatives.
D. Building an implementation plan.
25. Using the five-step problem-solving model, after selecting an alternative, the next step is to:
A. Explore alternatives.
B. Identify the problem.
C. Implement the solution.
D. Assess the situation
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation
Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy
For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
Late Policy
The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication
Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me: Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.
Assignment:How To Make Decisions
Assignment:How To Make Decisions
Assignment:How To Make Decisions
Assignment:How To Make Decisions
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