Gender equality is a human right, an essential condition for the complete enjoyment by women and men. It means that there is an equal empowerment, visibility, participation of women and men in all area of public and private lives. The acceptance and appreciation are highly necessary of the complementarities of women and men with their roles in the society as individuals. It measures an equal representation of both women and men in a range of role and responsibility. It does not imply that men and women are the same; however, they should have equal value in the society and with equal treatment in a harmonious way. The complete achievement of gender equality is the way for the issues in the society to be resolved such as violence against women, gendered poverty, and exclusion of women from decision – making in terms of political and economic life. The three ethical theories discussed in this course are utilitarianism, deontology, and virtue ethics. Utilitarianism as a theory is defined based on the principle that states, “Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness” . Deontology theory focuses on the person’s will of action, the intentions of his actions, and the rule to which the act is carried out accordingly. In addition, it focuses on the duty and obligation a person has on his actions rather than on the consequence of his actions. Virtue ethics is an approach to moral and ethical queries that focus on people’s character. The person of virtuous character has excellent characteristics and demonstrates his characteristics in a manner that has balance and harmony. It requires a deep modification in social relations between women and men to overcome inequalities, both women and men should be treated equally through social structures, cultural trends, and religious or cultural beliefs, it conveys and sustains gender inequality, and women and men are treated accordingly.
Both women and men should be treated equally through social structures, cultural trends and religious or cultural beliefs; they have equal rights. In utilitarianism, happiness is maximized, and sufferings are reduced. In other words, it is to maximize utility. The term utility is to express its quality. Every person can categories all of his choices according to the scale of his preferences. If a person has a correct moral choice, then it generates a goodness and it would minimize his unhappiness. For equal treatment, for women and men, say the human rights, there are attributes needed to have the assurance that no one is subject to uncontrolled calculations of utility. It is to ensure that a minority would not suffer in order for a great number enjoys the benefits. The core principle of utilitarianism is the greatest happiness principle. It promotes the ability to achieve happiness or higher pleasures for the most amounts of people. However, rights should be fair for all regardless of race. One of the rules that Kant provided is that the act in a way on how humanity is treated, always at the same time as an end and never merely as a means to an end. It means that both women and men deserve to be respected equally. It is not proper to treat people as objects or not showing any respect. Commonly, women experienced disrespect or sexual objectification . For Aristotle on magnanimity, this is how we see ourselves and how we are regarded by other people. It involves the respect given to a person by someone and the rewards and honors a person receives.
The ethical theories convey and sustain gender inequality. Women and men should comprehend on the respective equal roles, to strive, and to complement each other in a shared struggle, in the community or society. If women and men lack the awareness of the ethical theories, then it is difficult for them to act in accordance to equality. There are only few among the people in the society who experienced some extreme conditions, however, these people find themselves in conditions where the basic utilitarian measures lead to outcomes that are unjust and unfair. Sequentially, to change the abuse of male authority, men should focus on doing authority qualities for the good of everyone. They should use their strength to defend and care for the feminine characteristic, to assist women to appreciate their true potential. There are certain advantages in both utilitarianism and deontology; utilitarian measures have devise and provide a speedy manner on the evaluation of the moral worth of the action while deontology measures have explain and develop certain rules to make sensible action. In addition, a virtuous person has the right amount of courage; the basic point, a person who makes the right moral choices and behaves ethically is virtuous and admires by many for that reason alone.
The most important reason both women and men should be treated equally is that women and men are treated accordingly. Gender inequality in the extent to women occupies positions that present significant power is more difficult to assess than inequality in compensation or occupational distribution. The system would provide women opportunities and encouragements to take advantage, however, would not alter anything in the performance assessment or the nature of the said opportunities. A reason some woman has not risen to the top because of its organizational systems have not recognized the different paths to performance. The act of utilitarianism allows a person to act on discrete moral principles without direct reference to utility if the outcome of one who performed the action is most favorable. The outcome of the public or private differences with its usual formulation of the idea; men are more privilege in the public domain than for women with fewer privileges. Women are emotional rather than rational individuals as men. However, emotionality and rationality would never be allowed to hinder the equal treatment to both parties. Women and men deserve to be treated accordingly. Equality is about giving everyone the equal opportunity that almost means treating people differently. A real opportunity requires that women and men have an equal access to the benefits, responsibilities, and burdens regardless of gender, race, class, religion, disability, or sexual orientation. It means that equal opportunity is to treat women and men similarly by taking consideration the account of cultural, human, and some differences. For example, in providing quality health care; the differences of women and men are irrelevant to the ability to receive care, and the health care they receive is appropriate to their needs. As a guarantee that all people have an equal protection of the law, equal access to public service, equal access to education, and among other protections.
While it requires a deep modification in social relations between women and men to overcome inequalities, both women and men should be treated equally. Any efforts intend changes should be associated by extreme action to restore and support persons who experience inequality. In consideration of the three ethical theories, utilitarianism and virtue ethics theories strongly support on the issue of gender equality; however, deontology theory supports less. Utilitarianism theory provides a simple and direct manner to evaluate behaviors; it has an easy and functional approach in making ethical decisions. To understand on how to make and follow through on ethical decisions is to make a better choice and take a systematic approach. Happiness is clearly obtained and maximized properly; the option that would surely satisfy many people compared to other choices available. If a person desires something, it is possible to produce that anything is desirable. It is the quality of happiness rather than the quantity of pleasure, the core to utilitarianism. The qualities cannot be quantified, and it seeks to uphold the ability to achieve higher pleasures. In the virtue ethics theory, the genuine noble person has a proper proportion of his virtue; being modest and proud of his achievement appropriately.
Character is one of the greatest reason powers in the society. It demonstrates the nature of humankind in the highest forms and reveals the best of a person; character secures respect. A great person is exceptional; the range of human life has limitation that is why there are only few who has the opportunity to be great. Deontology theory fails to confine some complex issues that confront gender equality. A person should not treat the other person merely as a means to achieve his goal. The success of the changes depends on the courage of the system to challenge privileges that exist overtime. The success of women and men occur only if the social, cultural, and religious trends are the focus of the achievement or objectives. Both women and men are protected equally, the freedom for both genders and whatever they do. A free society with equality, treated with genuine action, not divided by gender and provided limitations and roles, is a woman or a man.
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