Good Attentional Blink Course Work Example

According to Slagter and Georgopoulou (2013), “attentional blink refers to impairment in detecting the second of two target stimuli presented in close succession in a rapid system of distracters”. People will have problems in identifying the second stimuli when it comes after the first stimuli within 200-500ms (Slagter and Georgopoulou, 2013). Different reasons have been provided for this condition such as the brain having inadequate capacity to process information in the working memory (Slagter and Georgopoulou, 2013). Additionally, the authors note, “attentional blink has been attributed with the dysfunctional gating of information to working memory rather than the limited capacity of the working memory” (Slagter and Georgopoulou, 2013). Distractor suppression ability influences the recovery from attentional blink. The ability to filter information from the first stimuli helps to reduce attentional blink. Thus, a person’s ability to restrain or block distracting information is crucial in determining the recovery from attentional blink (Slagter and Georgopoulou, 2013).

Difference between autogenic relaxation and progressive muscle approaches to relaxation

Autogenic training is a form of relaxation technique that is based on autosuggestion. According to Kanji, White and Ernst (2006), autogenic relaxation is normally aimed in reducing levels of stress and preventing stress by introducing a calming effect on the mind. Further, autogenic training is used in the treatment of other medical conditions such as hypertension, angina pectoris and dyspepsia (Kanji, White and Ernst, 2006). This method has the advantage that once learned, an individual could continue using it without the help of a therapist. Autogenic relaxation consists of six exercises that where developed by Schultz (Kanji, White and Ernst, 2006). One of these exercises includes muscular relaxation.

Progressive muscle relaxation technique is an approach that is aimed at enhancing self-control (Lopata, Nida and Marable, 2006). According to Lopata, Nida and Marable (2006), progressive muscle relaxation is effective in addressing aggressive behaviors. This intervention strategy is effective in reducing physical aggression and can be used in learning institutions where students seem to have aggressive problems.

Dr Joel Becker

Depression results in sadness, inability to enjoy things and fatigue among other symptoms. Common treatments include psychotherapy and medications. Cognitive behavioral therapy is the most effective treatment for depression. Several components are a characteristic of the cognitive behavioral therapy. The first essential component of cognitive behavioral therapy is behavioral activation. This involves trying to make individuals to enjoy pleasure in the things they do. It will involve counseling that is aimed to increase mastery and enjoy pleasure in those activities. This results to a decrease in depression.

The second essential component involves a social or interpersonal approach. Depression is normally present in an individual and the social system plays a significant role in either suppressing or increasing the depression. The goal here is to separate the social system’s influence on the depression. The third essential component is thought or the cognitive perspective. Individuals will be taught on how to think in ways that do not promote or activate depression. The fourth component is an assertiveness component. Identification of assertion difficulties is essential. Assertion training is done to increase an individual’s ability of expression. Less assertive people tend to be more depressed. Patients need to be assessed differently and treatment plans designed to suit their depression state to ensure effectiveness of the cognitive behavioral therapy

Physiology of pain

Categories of pain include acute pain, chronic pain and cancer pain. According to Briggs (2010), acute pain can last up to three months and reduces as healing increases, chronic pain lasts longer than the period of healing and normally its cause is not easily identifiable and cancer pain is because of a malignancy. Briggs (2010) indicates that pain is either nociceptive or neuropathic. Nociceptive pain relates to the ordinary physiological process of tissue damage while neuropathic relates pain caused by damage to the nervous system (Briggs, 2010).

Nociceptive pain

This begins with tissue damage, which causes the transmission of electrical nerve impulses to the spinal cord and brain (Briggs, 2010). This then causes a level of awareness of pain and modification of pain signals. This process involves a number of stages, which include transduction, transmission, perception and modulation (Briggs, 2010).

Transduction involves the change of a stimulus to an electrical signal in the nerve cells. Damages to cells may be attributed to temperature extremes, inflammation, chemical s, infection, dehydration or lacerations. Transmission involves the conveying of information along the peripheral nerve. During transmission, one experiences a localized sharp pain, which is then followed by a throbbing pain. These are attributed to the A-delta fibers and the C fibers respectively (Briggs, 2010). During the perception stage, an individual becomes conscious of the pain and responds emotionally (Briggs, 2010). Modulation stage involves response of the body to the pain via a number of mechanisms such as production of endogenous opiods, which influences the level of pain felt by the individual. Factors that contribute to increase in pain include anxiety, depression and fear (Briggs, 2010).

References

Briggs, E. (2010). Understanding the experience and physiology of pain: Pain Series #3. Nursing Standard, 25(3), 35-39.
Kanji, N., White, A., & Ernst, E. (2006). Autogenic training to reduce anxiety in nursing students: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(6), 729-735.
Lopata, C., Nida, R. E., & Marable, M. A. (2006). Progressive Muscle Relaxation: Preventing Aggression in Students with EBD. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(4), 20-25.
Slagter, H. A., & Georgopoulou, K. (2013). Distractor Inhibition Predicts Individual Differences in Recovery from the Attentional Blink. Plos ONE, 8(5), 1-5.

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