The new introductory lectures by Sigmund Freud are organized in a way that helps to carry the discussion on psychological analysis from one point to the other. The lectures are systematic, and start off by discussing the aspect of consciousness, which is where a person’s psychological framework starts. To these, he states the contradicting nature of the mental process and unconsciousness and cites that the psychological analysis is going to be based on that. He establishes that consciousness does occur in a mental state but that there are some aspects of the state that depict unconsciousness. The state of consciousness is influenced by different things that go beyond the mental state of a person. By starting at this point, Freud lays groundwork for the discussion of the state of consciousness and its existence in a moment, as opposed to a long time. He establishes a platform for the discussion on the contradiction about the state of unconsciousness. The discussion is important for a psychological analysis since it highlights the aspects that influence an individual’s psychology. He concludes the part of consciousness by facilitating that the mental process occurs in all the stages of mental process in human beings. The stages or processes are the conscious, preconscious or unconscious. He then establishes that the transition of these states is solely based upon the activities of the individual.
After that discussion on the mental processes of people, Freud discusses the phenomena of id, Ego and super-ego. The three are the core parts of a psychological analysis, but he had to begin the introduction with a discussion on mental processes. The processes help in the understanding of Id, Ego and super-ego. To the above, he discusses how the Id is influenced by the needs of the instincts, which are shaped by the mental processes. The Id is explained to adhere to the pleasure principle, where the values of the person play a very minimal role. Freud seemed to suggest that the instincts that people have are shaped by the process of being in either mental states of consciousness. The instincts determine actions and thoughts, which are often devoid of any sense of morality or value. They are purely based on instincts. The implications of the Id are identified as being long lasting, and are beyond therapeutic assessment and treatment. They occur in a conscious state that is timeless. The id is mostly fuelled by the economic factor, which is a significant factor of the pleasure principle. People are often aware of their needs that are instigated by the pleasure principle. Such needs are shaped by societal expectations.
Freud then goes ahead to discuss the ego and explains its distinctiveness from the Id. It is paramount to note that the arrangement helps to showcase ways in which all these factors are interrelated to each other and brings out the contrasts that exist in them. He explains the differences between co-relation between the two by using the idea of the perceptualconscious system. The concept relates to the external world that helps to shape part of the consciousness in human beings. The result is that it will relate to Id because the Id is shaped by consciousness that is influenced by the external world. To this extent, Freud agrees that in the ego could be part of the Id. The same relationships to the external factors in the world are what form the ego. The ego, therefore, can be said to facilitate the Id, which is how they relate to each other. The ego is solely based on what is depicted in the outside world and does not rely on any internal influences. The difference between the two comes in at this point since the Id has some aspects of internal forces of consciousness or energies, which are formed through instincts. In addition, the psychologist established that the ego can bring together all the mental processes and synthesizes them, something of which the Id is devoid. The ego can be influenced by many aspects and can take them all in, which is not the case with the Id that only serves one goal. It is influenced by one mental process and cannot be subjected to more than one factor.
The super-ego is identified as having an intimate relationship with the ego and is discussed after Freud concludes his discussion on the ego. The super-ego is influenced by a single entity that makes it have a dominating and endearing nature. It does not combine the mental processes, but assumes a conscious approach to the aspects that form its decision. It is unique to the ego and identifies itself with the Id in most instances. External factors that shape the mental processes are not admissible in the super-ego. The internal factors that determine aspects such as instincts, like is the case with the Id, play an imperative role.
Freud used a structure that would make the readers of his lectures understand each of these concepts with each. He started by explaining the mental process because they are the determinants of the above concepts. Then, he explained the Id, which forms the foundation for the ego and super-ego. The arrangement makes it substantially easy for the reader to understand the relationships that exist between the Id, Ego and Super-ego.
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