Why is it important to distinguish between antigenic drift and antigenic shift in the context of influenza?

Detail the different epidemiological information you would need to consider before introducing a new vaccination programme targeting a specific disease. What might be some potential sources for these data?
What are the main control strategies to control TB in England?
Name ONE potential environmental source of infection with Legionnaires’ disease.
Using the source named, briefly explain the FOUR factors necessary for Legionella to be transmitted from an environmental source and cause infection.
Describe ONE method of control which would interrupt one of the four factors described.
Why is it important to distinguish between antigenic drift and antigenic shift in the context of influenza?
What are the 10 steps in an outbreak investigation and why is it important to follow these steps?
Please describe three public health actions you would take in response to a case of probable Meningococcal disease reported by a hospital, and what are the main objectives of these public health actions?
The microbiologist in the local hospital has noted that two patients, who have recently been operated-on at the hospital, have developed acute Hepatitis B. Both patients were negative before the operation. One surgeon involved in the surgical care of both patients has been found to be a highly infectious chronic Hepatitis B carrier. Molecular sequencing and sub-typing of the virus from the surgeon and two patients have revealed that they are identical. What action should be considered at this initial stage and why?
Briefly describe the aims of a) a mass immunisation programme and b) a selective immunisation programme. List THREE diseases against which there is a selective immunisation programme in the UK and for each, describe at least one targeted group, and why this group has been chosen.
What are the impacts of healthcare-associated infections in the UK, and why is surveillance and control of healthcare-associated infections important?
What factors should be considered in deciding whether or not to introduce a surveillance system for a particular disease?

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